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Showing posts with label General Science. Show all posts
Showing posts with label General Science. Show all posts

Wednesday, January 1, 2020



fundamental quantity and derived quantity


Fundamental Quantity
In Physics and general science, fundamental quantities are base/physical quantities independent of all other quantities. They are measured in base or fundamental units. Length (L), Mass (M), Temperature (K), Mole (Amount of substance) (mol), current (Ampere), Luminous intensity (Candela).

Derived Quantity
In physics and general science, derived quantities are quantities that are dependent on fundamental quantities and are measured by the simple and easy combination of fundamental quantities. Some  Examples are: Electromotive force (EMF), density, volume, momentum, Area and so on.


Watch Summary video for fundamental and derived quantity.


Monday, December 30, 2019

Emulsion


In the previous article on Emulsifiers, the concept of emulsion was highlighted on.

What is Emulsion?
Emulsion is definitely a common term in the chemistry world. Emulsion is the mixing or colliding of one liquid with another liquid the are normally insoluble in each other. It is a type of Colloid action. Although, the mixture of the two immiscible (insoluble) liquids will separate again after a period of time, unless an Emulsifier is added to it.


Types of Emulsion
1) Water-in-Oil Emulsion: Here, the water is suspended in an oil mix. This emulsifier suitable for stabilizing this type of emulsion is more soluble in water and less soluble in oil. An Example is Ice cream.

2) Oil-in-Water Emulsion: Here, the oil is suspended in water mix. This emulsifier suitable for stabilizing this type of emulsion is more soluble in oil and less soluble in water.An Example is Lotions.

water and gas


POP Quiz:
Task: Spot and answer the 3 test question in the Video below.
Leave the answers in the comment section.


Some food emulsifiers are egg yolk, Monoglyceride & Diglyceride, Mucilage (in mustard) and many some others.


Emulsifiers

General Concept of Emulsifiers (All you need to know)


Emulsifier

This is a chemical/substance/compound that assists in stabilizing an Emulsion. Emulsion is the suspension or dispersion of a liquid in another liquid that are not normally soluble (Immiscible) and forms an heterogeneous mixture.

Read more:



Why doesn't Oil and water Mix?
Oil has molecules that are as Non-polar and therefore can not mix or be soluble in Water which has polar molecules.

Figure one, Oil floating on water as a result of difference in a variable density.

Oil/Water don't mix
Oil/Water don't mix


Only Polar molecules can dissolve and attract other polar molecules. This is as a result of the said molecules having charges on both ends. That is, one end of the each molecule has a positive charge and the other end has a Negative charge.

Oil molecules are non polar molecules and therefore can not mix with polar molecules. This is because Non-polar attracts non polar.

Hydrophilic and lipophilic
For Figure two below,  Working principle of Emulsifier.

Hydrophilic and lipophilic
Hydrophilic and lipophilic

The Emulsifier generally composes of a Water loving Hydrophilic head region and the Oil-Loving Lipophilic tail. Emulsifiers has several uses, functions and application with its distinct feature in helping to stabilize texture and increase shelf life of Food and Cosmetics.


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