Compound and mixture; Examples and differences


Compound and mixture

A compound is formed from the combination of two or more element which are chemically combined together. Examples are:

  • marble chips/ Limestone/ Chalk (Caco3), 
  • sodium chloride (Nacl), 
  • caustic soda or Sodium hydroxide (Na OH), 
  • Lime water or calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2
  • Lime (Cao) 
  • Epsom salt/water (MgSO4. 7H2O)
  • Urea (CH4N2O) 
  • Clay (Al2O3 2SiO2 2H2O
       Note: A compound a formed as a result of chemical changes. Therefore, it is a new substance with entirely different properties from its component element.

        Read more on Elements

Compound and their component Element.

Component element
Ammonium hydroxide
Nitrogen, hydrogen and oxygen
Silicon and oxygen
Carbon, Hydrogen, and oxygen
C2 H5 OH
Carbon, Hydrogen, and oxygen
C6 H12O6
Washing Soda
Sodium, carbon, oxygen and hydrogen
Na2CO3 .H2O
carbon, Hydrogen, oxygen
         C17 H35COO Na  

Formulae of compound

 Compounds Formula of compound can be derived or deduced from the valency of component element or radical. Examples are given below:

Sodium tetraoxosulphate (vi)
     Na2 SO4
Potassium trioxocarbonate (iv)
Ammonium tetraoxosulphate (vi)
Aluminium oxide
Ammonium hydroxide
Calcium hydrogen trioxocarbonate (iv)
Sodium dioxonitrate
   Na NO2
Calcium trioxonitrate (v)
   Ca (NO3)2
Ammonium trioxocarbonate (iv)


Mixture is a substance which contains two or more compounds which are physically combined together. Examples:
(a)    Salt and water
(b)   Kerosene and water
(c)    Milk
(d)   Iron filling
(e)   Sulphur
(f)     Sugar solution etc.

Note:  A mixture is a product of physical change. Therefore, it cannot be represented by any chemical equation.

        Differences between compound and mixture

·         The components of a compound are
The constituent of a mixture are        
Chemically combined.

Physically combined

·         It is homogeneous in nature.

It is heterogeneous in nature.

·         The properties of a compound is individual
The properties is the sum of the

totally different from its component
 Properties of its constituent.

·         It can be represented by simple chemical
Chemical Equations.
It cannot be represented by simple equations.  

·         The components are in fixed ratio.
The constituents are not in fixed ratio.
 There is an evidence of a chemical reaction
In a compound. Therefore, it cannot be separated
by physical means.
There is no evidence of a chemical
In a mixture. Therefore, the
Of a mixture can be separated by
Physical means.      

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